2017 was claimed as the safest year in Commercial Jet Aviation in terms of casualties. Aircraft design and the operational use of automated systems have been continuously improved and advanced to assist the pilots in the Man-Machine environment. Maybe even to a point, where we might start to consider: Is the automation on the ﬂight decks today, a “nice to have”, or has it become a “need to have”? What happens when automation fails? Are the pilots actually able to maintain their manual ﬂying skills, and manage attention when juggling concurrent task demands?